Concept of Liberation in Samkhya

Liberation or Kaivalya is one of the most valued objectives of sage Kapila. Hence, the liberation of all sentient beings is the aim of sage Kapila. He has also taught the means how to destroy and eliminate the 3 types of sufferings namely Adhyatmika, Adhibautika and Adhidaivika.

Liberation in Samkhya is different when compared to other schools of thoughts. In fact, Samkhya does not hold God responsible for the attainment of liberation. Being an atheistic realism, Samkhya has not given a place to God in its philosophy. Thus, sage Kapika does not maintain that the grace of God can lead the devotees towards liberation. On the contrary sage Kapila has been more inclined towards the Upanishadic philosophy because it maintains that liberation can be attained only through discriminate knowledge.

In fact, it is only with the knowledge of discrimination that matter can be extricated from the spirit. Thus, sage Kapila explains that liberation is attained when matter is dissociated from the spirit. As long as the individual associates the body with the soul, he will always stay in bondage. As a result, liberation in Samkhya makes the end of bondage and can be attained only with the knowledge of discrimination.

Sage Kapila has accepted 2 types of liberation namely Jivan Mukti and Videha Mukti.
Jivan Mukti is a state of liberation which is attained while the individual is still living in this world. This is possible only when the right knowledge of discrimination is attained.
On the other hand, Videha Mukti is attained after the death of the individual. In both types of liberation, Samkhya has not explained anythig about the grace of God nor about the merging og the self in God. This is why Samkhya has not found it important to give a place to God in its philosophy.


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