How is social evolution explained in the purusha sukta of the Rig veda

Vedic Suktas are the inspirations of the Vedic Seers. Whatever they had experienced in their meditation has been imparted to the later generations. The purusha sukta is one of the most important hymns of creation in the Rig Veda. According to great philosophers the purusha sukta has an important part in Indian philosophy because it has explained creation not according to a scientific response but through a spiritual insight of the vedic seers. Science has not been able to reveal the mystery of creation because it has only given us an information about creation. For e.g. the Big Bang theory has stated that creation has come from an explosion of atoms which took place billions of years ago.

While describing creation, the purusha sukta has also laid emphasis upon social evolution. It has been a marvel to see how God not only created a world but also a society in which people could live according to norms, values and ethical codes. The social evolution in the purusha sukta has been depicted in the sociological aspect of creation. In fact, this has also consolidated the spiritual relationship between man and God. As a result, every human being has been created by God in order to serve God's creation. Without creating a society the race of humanity would not have existed.

The social evolution in the purusha sukta has been explained by a macro cosmic sacrifice which the devas performed with the evolved purusha. There were different seasons which were used as the oblations and out of that sacrifice, the different limbs were sacrificed in order to create a society to be inhabited by four classes of people. This has been explained in the text as follows:
     "from His mouth were born the Brahmanas,
      from His arms came the Kshatriyas,
      the Vaishyas were born from His thighs
      and finally the Shudras were born from His feet."

Creation in the purusha sukta is not limited to the world or the whole planetary system. In fact, creation in the purusha sukta has dealt with the social stratification. Hence, purusha or the creator did not create living creatures just to live without any reason in this world. By creating a society, every human being knows about his cognate duties and responsibilities towards the society. Thus, by creating the four classes of people, there was a mutual understanding and corporation between them as a result, each one cooperated for the progress and welfare of the society. Thus, this leads towards social evolution.

Moreover, each human being had the opportunity to become a specialist in his profession. E.g., the Brahmanas were people of an intellectual disposition and they served society by means of their knowledge. The Kshatriyas protetced peace and democracy by means of their bravery. The Vaishyas served the society by means of their expertise in trade and commerce whereas the Shudras served society by means of their manual labour. However, there was no distinction or inferiority and superiority among these four classes of people. Each one was responsible to serve God's creation for the welfare of humanity. So, this obviously leads towards social evolution.

The purusha sukta has explained the concept of social evolution in a worldwide manner. Consequently, the Hindu society was able to experience several advantages by means of this idea of social evolution. There was peace, democracy, equality, economic stability, division of labour and specialisation everywhere in the society. This ideal of the purusha sukta has later developed into the Varnaa dharma. Is also spread in western countries. For e.g. the Greek philosopher Plato stated that society is divided into four classes of people namely philosophers, warriors, traders and peasants. Moreover, the French society also divided into four classes of people namely bourgeoisie, nobles, aristocrates and tiers-etat. This means that social evolution was not limited only to the Hindu society but to the whole world.

The social evolution in the purusha sukta has also explained the colossal progress achieved bu mankind. Due to the spirit of corporation, each human being was performing the task in which he had the most dexterity. As a result, the human civilisation was able to experience great progress. Even today, this concept of specialisation and division of labour is enabling man to account for different types of technological innovations where people are becoming specialist in different heads. So, the purusha sukta has been able to give mankind the divine inspiration to perform tasks in which he is better suited.

Therefore, social evolution in the purusha sukta has been explained as an ideal to raise the status of every human being in this world. While speaking of a society today everyone is proud to belong to it. Without a society, man would have been living in tribes just like in the pre-historic age.


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